Effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on glucose homeostasis on type 2 diabetes experimental model.
Aims: Evaluation of the anti-diabetic effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) on Type 2 diabetic rats and compared their effect to metformin treatment.Main methods: Diabetic rats were treated with different doses of nanoparticles one time per week for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose level was determined for studied groups during the experimental period (30 days). At the end of the experiment, oral glucose tolerance test was carried out, serum samples were collected for biochemical assays. Then animals were sacrificed to obtain tissues for assessment of glucose transporters, insulin receptors and insulin signaling proteins.Key finding: SPIONs treatment normalized fasting blood glucose and lowering insulin level in diabetic rats compared to untreated diabetic rats. SPIONs significantly ameliorate the glucose sensing and the active components of insulin signaling pathway. The anti-diabetic effects of SPIONs may be mediated through its effect on (i) hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha content, which induced by SPIONs treatment in a dose-dependent manner, (ii) adipocytokines as SPIONs treated diabetic rats showed significantly higher levels of adiponectin and lower retinol binding protein 4 compared to untreated diabetic rats, (iii) lipid profile as SPIONs treatment significantly corrected the lipid profile in a dose-dependent manner and to a similar extent as metformin or even better.Significance: To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the anti-diabetic effects of SPIONs on diabetic model.