Molecular Prototypes for Spin-Based CNOT and SWAP Quantum Gates.
We show that a chemically engineered structural asymmetry in [Tb-2] molecular clusters renders the two weakly coupled Tb3+ spin qubits magnetically inequivalent. The magnetic energy level spectrum of these molecules meets then all conditions needed to realize a universal CNOT quantum gate. A proposal to realize a SWAP gate within the same molecule is also discussed. Electronic paramagnetic resonance experiments confirm that CNOT and SWAP transitions are not forbidden.